BackForward Satellite Programme: Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun 

Programme details
Programme description
  • Programme implemented by moving the 2 most external satellites of the THEMIS cluster of 5 satellites, to Moon orbits.
  • NASA programme with support from several collaborating institutes.  NASA/GSFC responsible of the programme, SSL (Space Sciences Laboratory) of the University of California, Berkeley, responsible of science management.
  • The satellite stabilisation is by spin.
  • The design lifetime is 2 years.
  • The two satellites are orbiting around the Moon in the LL1 and LL2 Lunar Lagrange libration points, respectively.
  • See detailed description at
Data circulation
  • All operations managed by NASA/GSFC by exploiting the international Deep Space Network Data Downlink.
  • Data processing is performed by the Space Sciences Laboratory of the University of Berkeley.
Agencies NASA
Programme lifetime 2011 - 2024
Associated satellites and instruments

Note: red tag => no longer operational , green tag => operational , blue tag => planned