BackForward Satellite Programme: Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers 

Programme details
Programme description
  • Two-satellite programme for Space weather.
  • USA programme: NASA responsible of development and operation of the payloads, embarked as a Mission of Opportunity on the USAF satellites NROL-22 (National Reconnaissance Office, Launch-22).
  • The two satellites are actively stabilised over 3 axes.
  • The design lifetime is 2 years.
  • The two satellites are in coordinated Molniya orbits.
  • See detailed description at
Data circulation
  • Onboard stored and real-time data are downlinked to USAF stations.
  • The TWINS SOC (Science Operations Center) validates the data and produces higher-level products useful for scientific and educational purposes.
Programme lifetime 2006 - 2020
Associated satellites and instruments

Note: red tag => no longer operational , green tag => operational , blue tag => planned