BackForwardInstrument:  Penguin-M 

Instrument details
Acronym Penguin-M
Full name Hard X-ray polarimeter-spectrometer
Purpose To study solar flares by measuring spectra of X-ray and gamma-ray including their linear polarization
Short description Assemblage of instruments to measure 1) hard X-ray linear polarization parameters in solar flares in the energy range of 20-150 keV with resolving power 10; 2) spectra of X-ray and gamma-ray of solar flares in the energy range of 0.015-5 MeV with resolving power 17; and 3) soft X-ray solar radiation in the energy range 2-10 keV with resolving power 10
Background Part of a package of instruments to monitor solar activity
Scanning Technique Sun pointing from a LEO high-inclination drifting orbit
Resolution N/A (full disk)
Coverage / Cycle Full Sun disk integral at about 1-s rate
Mass 43 kg Power Data Rate


Providing Agency Roscosmos
Instrument Maturity Flown on an R&D satellite
Utilization Period: 2009 to 2009
Last update: 2017-05-18
Detailed characteristics
Satellites this instrument is flying on

Note: a red tag indicates satellites no longer operational, a green tag indicates operational satellites, a blue tag indicates future satellites

Instrument classification
  • Solar and space environment monitors
  • Solar activity monitor
WIGOS Subcomponents
  • Subcomponent 2
  • Solar magnetograph, solar EUV/X-ray imagery and EUV/X-ray irradiance, both on the Earth-Sun line and off the Earth-Sun line
  • Solar X-ray spectrometer [from L1, GEO, LEO]
Mission objectives
Primary mission objectives
  • Solar X-ray flux spectrum
  • Solar gamma-ray flux spectrum
Evaluation of Measurements

The following list indicates which measurements can typically be retrieved from this category of instrument. To see a full Gap Analysis by Variable, click on the respective variable.

Note: table can be sorted by clicking on the column headers
Note: * Primary mission objective.
VariableRelevance for measuring this variableOperational limitationsExplanation
Solar gamma-ray flux spectrum*1 - primaryNo specific limitation.Wide dynamic range, associated to X-ray observation
Solar X-ray flux spectrum*3 - highNo specific limitation.Coarse spectral resolution, wide dynamic range