BackForward Satellite Programme: Complex Orbital Observations Near-Earth of Activity of the Sun 

Programme details
Programme description
  • Series of satellite addressing solar processes.
  • Russian programme: Roscosmos responsible of development and operations.
  • The platforms are stabilised by spin (Coronas I and F) or over 3 axes (Coronas-Photon).
  • The design life time is 2 years (Coronas I and F) or 5 years (Coronas-Photon).
  • The satellites are on a high-inclination drifting orbit.
  • See detailed description at,
Data circulation
  • Onboard stored data downlinked to stations of Roscosmos.
  • Data processing and distribution from the scientific institutes responsible of the various payloads..
Agencies Roscosmos
Programme lifetime 1994 - 2009
Associated satellites and instruments

Note: red tag => no longer operational , green tag => operational , blue tag => planned